Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities —not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be. Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography.
Human geography is concerned with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography is concerned with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmospherehydrospherebiosphereand geosphere. The four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.
Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences ". Geography is a systematic study of the Universe and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names.
Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartologythis is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns.
Names of places Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latterto compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect.
Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography.
Physical geography or physiography focuses on geography as an Earth science. It aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithospherehydrosphereatmospherepedosphereand global flora and fauna patterns biosphere.
Physical geography is the study of earth's seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms, and oceans. Environmental management. Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses the humanpoliticalculturalsocialand economic aspects. Political geog. Religion geography. Transportation geography. Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world.
Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between human and physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Since the changing of the human relationship with the environment as a result of globalization and technological changea new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in environmental geography include: emergency managementenvironmental managementsustainabilityand political ecology.Overseas investment offers China an opportunity to not just bolster its own economy, but also leverage its economic strength to increase its influence abroad.
Unlike investments, which go mostly to more developed economies, construction contracts are concentrated in developing parts of the world. From tolow and middle-income economies received In contrast, high-income countries — mainly those in North America and Europe — attracted While the United States and other European countries have historically been the main sources of FDI, China leads in the world in mergers and acquisitions in region.
Chinese companies are also now exploring sectors other than resource extraction. Over 61 percent of all construction contracts in Latin America and the Caribbean since have been in the energy sector. China has signed contracts to build hydroelectric power plants in all three countries, inked deals on a variety of transportation and agriculture projects with Venezuelan and Argentinian companies, and in became involved in real estate construction transactions in Ecuador.
Chinese banks have also provided loans toward LAC infrastructure. Chinese investment in Africa fluctuated considerably between and During this year span, Western Africa received Southern Africa was particularly affected by this drop, seeing a 66 percent decline in investment in Investment in Africa from China was no exception.
InChina was the largest investor in Africa, making up 39 percent of global investment inflows.
Taiwan accuses China of giving WHO wrong information about virus cases on island
From toChina funded 2, projects across Africa. Roughly 94 percent of this financing was loaned by Chexim, with countries like Angola, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Sudan having consistently received infrastructure loans since Some Chinese investments are partially funded through infrastructure-for-loan arrangements. In these transactions, Chinese companies offer loans for resource-development projects to prospective African partners in exchange for resources.
China has also pursued similar financing schemes with Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Tanzania for sugar cane, gold, and iron ore. Europe and North America excluding Mexico have become major destinations for Chinese foreign direct investment, receiving The energy sector received Likewise, the energy sector in the US and Canada attracts a considerable amount of investment from China.
Diversification of Chinese investment is especially evident in countries facing economic difficulties that have opted to open up previously state-controlled industries. Chinese firms have invested significant capital into Eastern European countries such as Hungary, focusing on the chemicals and technology industries.
Inthe European Union and the US made up The largest of these investments are concentrated in Southeast and Western Asia. This strategic asset at the mouth of the Persian Gulf is close to critical sea lanes and could be utilized to link Western provinces in China with countries in South Asia and the Middle East. In Southeast Asia, Chinese investment has begun to flow into real estate and finance. Despite strong trade relations with Japan and South Korea, China has invested only a modest amount in East Asia, likely due to its lack of natural resources.
Chinese firms have, however, invested in the finance, technology, real estate, tourism, and entertainment sectors in both Japan and South Korea.
While energy remains the dominant sector for investment, contracts have begun to gravitate toward transportation and real estate.
China has strengthened its bilateral relations across the region through development aid. This project is backed by Chexim and the Silk Road Fund, and its overall value is expected to eclipse the development assistance given by the US to Pakistan between and Italy is a country in south Europe and a member of the European Union.
Its official name is Repubblica Italiana. The Italian flag is green, white and red. Italy is a democratic republic and is a founding member of the European Union. Italy is also a member of the G8as it has the eighth largest Gross Domestic Product in the world. Beforeit was made up of smaller kingdoms and city-states.
Italy has become famous for its wine, as well as its food. Some foods are different between regions. Famous dishes include various types of pastapizzaand grape s. Olive s are much used. The country's capital, Romeis one of the most famous cities in the world, as it was the capital of the Roman Empire.
Italy is a peninsulameaning it is encompassed by the sea on all of its sides apart from one side of the country its north side. Northern Italy is separated from FranceSwitzerlandand Austria by the Alps a chain of mountains. Mont Blanc Monte Bianco in Italian or white mountain in Englishthe highest mountain in western Europe belongs to this chain. The second important chain of mountains in Italy is the Apennines Appennini in Italianwhich are in central and southern Italy.
The capital of Italy is Rome where the Roman Empire started. The country has a number of islands, the biggest of which are Sicily and Sardinia  which can be reached by ship or aircraft.
It shares maritime borders with Libya to the south. The Po River is the longest river in Italy. Two very small separate countries are located within Italy. People from Italy are called Italians. Even if an Italian were to leave Italy, it is possible that their descendants could also claim Italian citizenship due to Italian nationality law relying mostly on ius sanguinis or "right of blood" in Latin.
The population of Italy is a little over 60 million. People also speak dialects of Italian such as Sicilian and Sardinian. There are many different dialects spoken in Italy. They vary between regions and, in some cases, also between provinces. The people of Italy are mostly descendant from the ancient Romans. Italy is home to more World Heritage Sites than any other nation in the world. Italy is also a big wine producer. In it made over 5 million tonnes.
History of geography
Italy has a modern social welfare system. The labor market enjoys relative strength, with many foreigners, especially from Romaniaworking in Italy where the wages are much higher. But it could have been much more workers on the labor market because men and women already retired in the age of 57 and the unemployment rate is relatively high at 8. And the government cannot pay back the loans during the time period the EU wish.Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsulathe southern side of Alps, the large plain of the Po Valley and some islands including Sicily and Sardinia.
Corsicaalthough belonging to the Italian geographical region, has been a part of France since Italy is part of the Northern Hemisphere. The total border length is 1, Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like CapraiaPonzaIschiaEolieUstica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands.
There are also active volcanoes: Etnain Sicily, the largest active volcano in Europe; VulcanoStromboliand Vesuviusnear Naplesthe only active volcano on mainland Europe. Other well known of these subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore Italy includes several islands. Southern Italy and Sicily on the map. Asinara island with the Aragonese Torre della Pelosa 16th centurySardinia. The coastal areas of Liguria have a Mediterranean climate.
Rice paddies in the Po Valley near Vercelli.
Marmore waterfallthe world's tallest man-made waterfall, was created by the ancient Romans. Gran Sasso d'Italiathe highest peak of the Apennines. Vineyards in the Montferrat hills, with the Monviso in the background. The Strait of Messina as seen from mainland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geographical features of Italy. Astronaut photograph highlighting the night-time appearance of southern Italy. Mount Vesuvius looms over the ruins of Pompeii. Panorama of Venice and its lagoon.
Enciclopedia universale Garzanti Nuova ed. Milano: Garzanti. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Xi Jinping originally announced the strategy during official visits to Indonesia and Kazakhstan in The Chinese government calls the initiative "a bid to enhance regional connectivity and embrace a brighter future".Geography Now! China
The initiative was unveiled by Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping in September and October during visits to Kazakhstan and Indonesia,  and was thereafter promoted by Premier Li Keqiang during state visits to Asia and Europe.
The initiative was given intensive coverage by Chinese state mediaand by often being featured in the People's Daily. The stated objectives are "to construct a unified large market and make full use of both international and domestic markets, through cultural exchange and integration, to enhance mutual understanding and trust of member nations, ending up in an innovative pattern with capital inflows, talent pooland technology database.
The initial focus has been infrastructure investment, education, construction materials, railway and highway, automobile, real estate, power grid, and iron and steel. The Belt and Road Initiative now refers to the entire geographical area of the historic, international trade corridor " Silk Road ", which was already used in antiquity. While some countries view the project critically because of possible Chinese influence, others point to the creation of a new global growth engine by connecting and moving Asia, Europe and Africa closer together.
The G7 industrial country Italy has been a partner in the development of the project since March The land route of the Silk Road also appears to remain a niche project in terms of transport volume in the future. In the maritime silk road, which is already the route for more than half of all containers in the world, deepwater ports are being expanded, logistical hubs are being built and new traffic routes are being created in the hinterland.
All in all, the ship connections for container transports between Asia and Europe will be reorganized. In contrast to the longer East Asian traffic via north-west Europe, the southern sea route through the Suez Canal towards the junction Trieste shortens the goods transport by at least four days.
In connection with the Silk Road project, China is also trying to network worldwide research activities. Initially, the initiative was termed One Belt One Road Strategy, but officials decided that the term "strategy" would create suspicions, so they opted for the more inclusive term "initiative" in its translation.
The Belt and Road Initiative is believed by some analysts to be a way to extend Chinese influence. China has emerged as one of the fastest-growing sources of Foreign Direct Investment FDI into India — it was the 17th largest inup from the 28th rank in and 35th inaccording to India's official ranking of FDI inflows. BRI's goals include internal state-building and stabilisation of ethnic unrest for its vast inland western regions such as Xinjiang and Yunnan, linking these less developed regions, with increased flows of international trade facilitating closer economic integration with China's inland core.
A leading group was formed sometime in lateand its leadership line-up publicized on 1 February This steering committee reports directly into the State Council of the People's Republic of China and is composed of several political heavyweights, evidence of the importance of the program to the government.
On 28 MarchChina's State Council outlined the principles, framework, key areas of cooperation and cooperation mechanisms with regard to the initiative.
The Belt and Road Initiative is about improving the physical infrastructure along land corridors that roughly equate to the old silk road. These are the belts in the title, and a maritime silk road.Cliccando acconsento al trattamento dei dati come specificato nell'informativa privacy. Autori e curatori. Dino GavinelliFlavio Lucchesi. Geostoria del territorio. Design dei servizi e delle esperienze - Filosofia analitica - Storia sociale e demografica - Storia della cultura e del costume.
A series of issues relating to different branches of Geography are here in examined: historical, political, cultural, population, Geography of tourism, urban, regional. Furthermore, in some cases, relations between China and Italy are considered, for the purpose of outlining a framework that will be grasped by different perspectives and scales.
Geography of Italy
Presentazione del volume One of the most interesting and hot topics in the contemporary era of globalization surely involves the geopolitical role played by new powers in the international sphere.
The first of these is China, which is receiving ever increasing attention among scholars of various branches of knowledge. Geographers are involved in this debate and contribute to understand and highlight themes of particular significance. Furthermore, in some cases, relations between China and Italy are considered, for the purpose of outlining a framework that will be examined from different perspectives and in different scales.
The essays included in this book examine qualitative and quantitative issues using scientifically rigorous methodologies to tackle an extremely heterogeneous reality, which is rooted in cultural and religious values of the past, and in which global phenomena are woven together, imprinting the future of our Planet.
Contribution from: M. Bergaglio, V. Bini, A. Dal Borgo, M. Fumagalli, G. Gambazza, D. Gavinelli, Z. Jin, A. Lavagnino, F. Lucchesi, E. Mastropietro, G. Roditi, A. The main fields of research and his scientific articles and books regard topics such as: Geography of rural areas, Regional Studies, Urban Geography, Cultural Geography, Cartography and Semiology.All rights reserved.
During the 20th century, Americans developed a love affair with pasta. The route by which spaghetti, ravioli, and tortellini became international household names has taken some surprising turns over the centuries. Made from the flour of durum wheat, pasta takes its name from the pasty texture of the dough when it is first mixed.
Different pastas have different names, many based on the different shapes the dough is molded into. Fresh pasta is often mixed, cooked, and eaten right away, whereas pasta secca is dried in order to be stored; it is often prepared later by cooking it in boiling water. The production process is simple, but the uses the finished product are put to are dizzyingly varied.
The different shapes of pasta—cut into squares, rolled into tubes, pulled into long strings, and twisted into spirals—stretch to at least types, any one of which might be used in a huge array of sauces and accompaniments, all with their regional variations. Many theories have been put forward, some notably far-fetched. In it, Polo mentions a tree from which something like pasta was made.
It was probably the sago palm, which produces a starchy food that resembles, but is not pasta. This food almost certainly reminded the Venetian traveler of the pasta of his home country. Many Italian writers have argued that a tomb from the fourth century B. Many food historians, however, dispute this interpretation of the relief.
They point out that Roman-era references to anything resembling pasta are scarce, and that the dish probably took hold in Italy as a result of extensive Mediterranean trading in the Middle Ages.
From the 13th century, references to pasta dishes—macaroni, ravioli, gnocchi, vermicelli—crop up with increasing frequency across the Italian Peninsula.
In his collection of earthy tales, The Decameron, he recounts a mouthwatering fantasy concerning a mountain of Parmesan cheese down which pasta chefs roll macaroni and ravioli to gluttons waiting below. In the s Franco Sacchetti, another poet and writer of tales, also tells how two friends meet up to eat macaroni. He did not dare put it in his mouth as the food was steaming. What did the pasta that Noddo bolts down with such relish taste like? Throughout the Middle Ages, until the start of the 16th century, pasta dishes were markedly different from those eaten today.
Not only was pasta cooked for longer—there was none of the modern-day preference for pasta al dente—it was also mixed with ingredients that would seem surprising now, often combining sweet, savory, and spicy flavors.