Birth of Venus c. She is met by one of the Horae, goddesses of the seasons, who hands her a flowered cloak. The picture has a variety of political, mythological and physical meanings. See Female Nudes in Art History.
One of the great painters of the Early RenaissanceAlessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi - better known by his nickname Botticelli "little barrels" - was active during the golden age of the Renaissance in Florenceand by was possibly the most influential painter in the city.
A pupil of Fra Filippo Lippihe suffered from ill health for much of his life, and - apart from a period in Rome when he was commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV to paint the Story of Moses in the Sistine Chapel - he spent virtually all of his life working for the great families of the Florentine Renaissancenotably the Medici family. As well as standard religious works, Botticelli specialized in idealized paintings of classical mythology that are filled with atmosphere and populated with enormously imaginative figures.
His poetic, often sensuous, works reflect not only the Renaissance mindset of the quattrocento but also reflect the contemporary political situation - itself largely controlled by his employers, the Medicis.
Although overshadowed by the likes of Leonardo da VinciBotticelli remains one of the key contributors to Early Renaissance paintingwith a sensibility all of his own. Botticelli's most memorable contribution to Renaissance art are his paintings: La Primavera c.
All three contain complex and allegorical meanings. In addition, Botticelli completed some of the best drawings of the Renaissanceand painted numerous tempera frescoes for several Florentine churches.
For the top allegorical painting, see: Best History Painters.
Botticelli's pictures were painted using tempera - a method in which colour-pigments are combined with an emulsion of water and egg yolks, or whole eggs, sometimes glue or milk. Tempera was commonly used in Florence in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, both for panel painting and fresco work, until it was replaced by oil painting. Tempera colours are bright and translucent, but because the paint dries very quickly there is little time for blending, so a tempera artist creates lighter or darker shades by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.
Botticelli painted most of his pictures on wooden panels - though some were executed on canvases - and completed many wall-paintings. Botticelli first learned the craft of goldsmithingbefore becoming a pupil in the studio of Fra Filippo Lippi, about the same time as Andrea del Verrocchio and Antonio del Pollaiuolo His early works, such as his versions of the Virgin and Child examples in the Uffizi, Louvre, and National Gallery, London are modelled on works by Lippi, to whom they are sometimes attributed.
However, even at this early stage Lippi's heavy drawing becomes light and subtle in the hands of his pupil.
Likewise the tension in Verrocchio's and Pollaiuolo's figures is softened in those of Botticelli. The latter's typical treatment is even more evident in the two Scenes from the Life of Judith Uffizi. Botticelli's PrimaveraUffizipainted for the Villa Medici at Castello, is one of the most memorable interpretations of a classical myth.
Curiously, his approach to Antiquity differs significantly from that of previous Renaissance painters from the early 15th century, such as Paolo UccelloFra Angelico c. Whereas these early artists generally welcomed the existence of a new humanity in a world illuminated by new perspectives and opportunities, Botticelli preferred to create a classical universe that was above all an evocation of the past - an escape from reality.
Thus, for example, the buildings which appear in the backdrop of The Adoration of the MagiUffizi are not presented in their original condition but as romantic ruins.It has been described as "one of the most written about, and most controversial paintings in the world",  and also "one of the most popular paintings in Western art".
The painting depicts a group of figures from classical mythology in a garden, but no story has been found that brings this particular group together. The subject was first described as Primavera by the art historian Giorgio Vasari who saw it at Villa Castellojust outside Florence, by Although the two are now known not to be a pair, the painting is inevitably discussed with Botticelli's other very large mythological painting, The Birth of Venusalso in the Uffizi.
They are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the Italian Renaissance ; of the two, the Birth is even better known than the Primavera. The history of the painting is not certainly known; it may have been commissioned by one of the Medici familybut the certainty of its commission is unknown.
It draws from a number of classical and Renaissance literary sources, including the works of the Ancient Roman poet Ovid and, less certainly, Lucretiusand may also allude to a poem by Polizianothe Medici house poet who may have helped Botticelli devise the composition.
Since the painting has been part of the collection of the Uffizi Gallery in FlorenceItaly. The painting features six female figures and two male, along with a cupid, in an orange grove.
The movement of the composition is from right to left, so following that direction the standard identification of the figures is: at far right " Zephyrusthe biting wind of March, kidnaps and possesses the nymph Chloriswhom he later marries and transforms into a deity; she becomes the goddess of Spring, eternal bearer of life, and is scattering roses on the ground.
In the centre but not exactly so and somewhat set back from the other figures stands Venus, a red-draped woman in blue. Like the flower-gatherer, she returns the viewer's gaze. The trees behind her form a broken arch to draw the eye.
In the air above her a blindfolded Cupid aims his bow to the left. At the extreme left Mercuryclothed in red with a sword and a helmet, raises his caduceus or wooden rod towards some wispy gray clouds.
The interactions between the figures are enigmatic. Zephyrus and Chloris are looking at each other. Flora and Venus look out at the viewer, the Cupid is blindfolded, and Mercury has turned his back on the others, and looks up at the clouds. The central Grace looks towards him, while the other two seem to look at each other. Flora's smile was very unusual in painting at this date. The pastoral scenery is elaborate.
There are identified plant species depicted in the painting, with about different flowers,  of which at least can be specifically identified. These tapestries had not caught up by the s with the artistic developments of the Italian Renaissance, and the composition of the painting has aspects that belong to this still Gothic style. The figures are spread in a rough line across the front of the picture space, "set side by side like pearls on a string".His The Birth of Venus and Primavera are often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance.
Sandro Botticelli was one of the greatest painters of the Florentine Renaissance. His Birth of Venus c. Sandro Botticelli was born Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi to a father who was a tanner. Sandro never married, and he lived with his family throughout his life.
But, since Sandro preferred painting, his father placed him under Filippo Lippiwho was one of the most admired Florentine masters. By Botticelli had established himself in Florence as an independent master with his own workshop. Biographer Giorgio Vasari described Botticelli as impoverished and disabled in his last years.
Other evidence, however, suggests that Botticelli remained fairly prosperous. He may have simply been overtaken by ill health. But, since Sandro preferred paintinghis father then placed him under Filippo Lippiwho was one of the most admired Florentine masters.
Lippi taught Botticelli the techniques of panel painting and fresco and gave him an assured control of linear perspective. Stylistically, Botticelli acquired from Lippi a repertory of types and compositionsa certain graceful fancifulness in costuming, a linear sense of form, and a partiality to certain paler hues that is still visible even after Botticelli had developed his own strong and resonant colour schemes.
After Lippi left Florence for SpoletoBotticelli worked to improve the comparatively soft, frail figural style he had learned from his teacher. To this end he studied the sculptural style of Antonio Pollaiuolo and Andrea del Verrocchiothe leading Florentine painters of the s, and under their influence Botticelli produced figures of sculptural roundness and strength.
Already by Botticelli was established in Florence as an independent master with his own workshop. Absorbed in his art, he never married, and he lived with his family.
La Primavera, 1481-1482
The forms in his paintings are defined with a line that is at once incisive and flowing, and there is a growing ability to suggest the character and even the mood of the figures by action, pose, and facial expression. About —81 Botticelli entered his artistic maturity; all tentativeness in his work disappeared and was replaced by a consummate mastery.
He was able to integrate figure and setting into harmonious compositions and to draw the human form with a compelling vitality. Botticelli worked in all the current genres of Florentine art. He painted altarpieces in fresco and on panel, tondi round paintingssmall panel pictures, and small devotional triptychs.
His altarpieces include narrow vertical panels such as the St. Sebastian ; small oblong panels such as the famous Adoration of the Magi c. Barnabas Altarpiece c. His early mastery of fresco is clearly visible in his St. Florentine tondi were often large, richly framed paintings, and Botticelli produced major works in this format, beginning with the Adoration of the Kings c. Before Botticelli, tondi had been conceived essentially as oblong scenes, but Botticelli suppressed all superfluity of detail in them and became adept at harmonizing his figures with the circular form.
His complete mastery of the tondo format is evident in two of his most beautiful paintings, The Madonna of the Magnificat and The Madonna of the Pomegranate c. Botticelli also painted a few small oblong Madonnasnotably the Madonna of the Book c. In his art the Virgin Mary is always a tall, queenly figure wearing the conventional red robe and blue cloak, but enriched in his autograph works by sensitively rendered accessories.After returning from Rome in the spring ofBotticelli executed a series of mythological paintings in the course of the decade which constitute the basis of his fame as an artist today.
One of the best known of these paintings, if also without doubt the most puzzling and most discussed among them, is The Primaverathe exact meaning of which remains unclear to this day.
For a long time it was assumed that the picture had been painted for Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of Florence at the time. However, this supposition has been disproved by recent studies. According to a recently discovered inventory, in the painting could be found in the Florentine city palace of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, a cousin twice removed of Lorenzo the Magnificent. In all probability, therefore, the painting was executed for this same Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, from the younger branch of the Medici family.
After the death of his father, this man grew up in the care of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who designated Giorgio Antonio Vespucci, Botticelli's neighbour and greatest admirer, as one of his charge's tutors.
The young Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco will doubtless have heard via this man of Botticelli, who was to become his preferred painter. We know from the aforementioned inventory that Botticelli's Primavera was to be found in an anteroom to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco's bed-chamber.
The picture was surrounded by a white frame and hung directly above the back-rest of a sofa, which would explain not only the length of the painting but also the sharply rising perspective of the meadow on which the eight figures in the picture appear. According to the inventory, two further paintings hung in the room, namely a Virgin and Child by an unknown painter and Botticelli's Pallas and the Centaurplaced over the door as a sopraporta.
We will see that all three paintings were interrelated from the point of view of content and constituted a unity. As indicated by the picture's title - itself known to have been in use by the 16th century - Primavera represents the arrival and celebration of Spring. Venus, Goddess of Love, appears in the middle of an orange grove, on a meadow adorned with flowers; overhead, her son, Amor, his eyes blindfolded, is shooting his arrows of love.Primavera di Sandro Botticelli - I Simboli nell'Arte
Mistress of this grove, Venus has fallen back a little, as if wishing to give her retinue the opportunity to overtake her. The posture and movement of the pictorial figures are echoed by the form of the trees, resulting in a harmonious unity of man and nature.
The erect stature of the orange trees echoes the figures standing upright beneath them, while the bending laurel trees on the right-hand side imitate the posture of the fleeing nymph.
The orange trees come together over Venus' head to form a semicircular arch; halo-like, it surrounds the Goddess as the primary figure in the picture. Venus appears in her garden, which Angelo Poliziano, the Medici court poet, portrayed in his verse as the place of eternal spring and peace. His poetic descriptions may have provided Botticelli with the model for his painting. Thus entrance is permitted Zephyrus, the gentle wind who bathes the meadows in dew, wraps them in sweet scents and clothes the earth with innumerable flowers.
The God of Winds appears on the right-hand side of the picture as a bluish-green winged being.
Primavera, 1482 by Sandro Botticelli
He is powerfully filling his cheeks, so as to pour out his warm breezes. However, Zephyrus' intentions are revealed as being less peaceful than Poliziano describes them. Instead, the God of Winds is forcing his way into the garden, causing the trees to bend. He is pursuing a nymph clad in transparent garments, who is turning around fearfully to look at him. Flowers are unfolding from her mouth, mingling with those lavishly adorning the robe of the woman pacing along next to her. The latter is reaching with her hand into her gathered-up dress, in order to strew the abundance of roses collected therein throughout the garden.Las figuras destacan contra el fondo por la claridad de su piel y sus ropajes, de colores claros e incluso transparentes.
La luz unifica la escena, incluso parece emanar de los propios cuerpos. El hecho de que con su caduceo disperse las nubes puede significar el acceso al entendimiento.
Algunos historiadores del arte como Gombrich op. La fiesta de Flora se llamaba Floralias. Dado que el fragmento contiene referencia a otras figuras que aparecen en el grupo de Botticelli, es probablemente una de las fuentes principales para la pintura:. Aunque en el cuadro solo aparece un Cupido y una Hora, Gombrich lo atribuye a las necesidades representativas del cuadro.
En cuanto a Parisel historiador lo supone fuera del cuadro y lo identifica con la figura de Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco. Para Panofsky op. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.
Llegan la Primavera y Venus, y delante de ellas avanza el alado heraldo de Venus. Consultado el 8 de septiembre de Consultado el 7 de septiembre de Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons. Sandro Botticellic.If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.
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La primavera [De lente] (1481-82) - Sandro Botticelli
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Botticelli, Primavera.The Primavera was painted by Italian artist Sandro Botticelli in c. This egg tempera wood panel painting is depicted as a famous painting of the western world.
It is also a very publicized and debated work of art in the world. Most commentators concur that the painting which depicts figures in a garden is symbolic to the lush spring growth. There have been other meanings which were examined. One such explanation that was entertained is the idea that the piece of art portrays the idealistic love of the Neoplatonicism. Although the exact history of this work is yet to be known with certainty it appears the artist might have been contracted by a Medici family member.
Standing very near is a woman in a gossamer white gown that is being captured by a male figure with wings above. The winged male intently concentrates on the task at hand, his cheeks puffed and having an unnatural complexion makes it seem that this figure does not belong with the others. The trees around the seemingly menacing figure move their branches toward the man while blowing in his direction and the woman he is gripping.
A couple of the women are wearing noticeable necklaces and the chubby winged cherub has an arrow notched and aimed at the dancing girls. In the center and somewhat apart from the others, a woman stands wearing a blue dress with a red cloak. She is like the female scattering the flowers returns the gaze of those who look at them while the vivid scenery is completely detailed. Several hundred different species of plants and flowers are portrayed in the magnificent work of art.
Various analyses of the painting have been speculated yet it is generally agreed upon that the painting is an elaborate symbolism of the blossoming fruitfulness of the world. The orange trees are representative of the Medici family. The painting is said to have been made for a member of the prominent family.
The painting itself is the allegory of spring. The figures, from left to right, are Mercury Hermes in Greek mythology, but some recognize him as Marsthe Three Graces, Venus Aphrodite in Greeka cherub above her, Flora the Roman goddess of springChloris a Greek nymph associated with spring and Zephyrus the Roman god of the west wind, or first wind of spring.
Your email address will not be published. Leave this field empty. Art History U. History World History. History Although the exact history of this work is yet to be known with certainty it appears the artist might have been contracted by a Medici family member.
The Woman Before the Arch In the painting there are six figures of women and two of men, and a blindfolded chubby male child with wings. On the right of the painting stands a female with a crown of flowers and wearing a floral dress and scattering flowers enfolded in her dress.
Megan says:. February 12, at pm. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Famous Paintings by Botticelli Fortitude. Adoration of the Magi. The Birth of Venus.